BIOMARKER: Genes, proteins, hormones or other substances that can be tested to learn important details about a cancer.

CRYOTHERAPY: The use of extreme cold to freeze and kill cancer cells.

DYSPLASIA: Abnormal changes in cells that could lead to cancer.

FIVE-YEAR SURVIVAL RATE: The percentage of people with the same type and stage of cancer who are alive five years or longer after diagnosis.

LESION: Abnormal body tissue, which may be a lump, mass, tumor, spot or change in the way the skin looks or feels.

LYMPH NODE: Removes cell waste, germs and other harmful substances from the body. Cancers often spread first to nearby lymph nodes.

NODULE: A small, solid lump that can be felt or seen on an imaging test.

NEUTROPENIA: A drop in white blood cells and increase in infection risk.

POLYP: A growth commonly found in such organs as the rectum, uterus, and nose that can be cancerous or noncancerous.

POLYPECTOMY: Surgery or procedure to remove a polyp.

RESECTION: Surgery to remove part or all of an organ or other structure.

WHITE BLOOD CELLS: Defends the body against infections and can be reduced by certain cancer treatments.

For an extensive glossary, visit American Cancer Society’s website at cancer.org.

Source: American Cancer Society

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